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'The Road to Mecca'
Greens Super Market, plant-based sushi train Kimusabi, pasta bar Cousin Sal's and a teppanyaki venue Outlaw, are all under construction at Enmore Road. Sophia Stewart-Kasimba, part of the duo behind the sprawling development, already operate the month-old plant-based Vandal Taqueria. She counts around nine plant-based venues already trading on the strip, which is more accurately a few hundred metres rather than a full vegan mile.
Stewart-Kasimba, who maintains the project will tick a number of firsts for the burgeoning plant-based sector, will import a new tapioca-based salmon substitute previously unavailable in Australia. What's driving Sydney's building boom for plant-based venues? Thus, each year in the Gregorian calendar, the pilgrimage starts eleven days sometimes ten days earlier. The last time this phenomenon occurred was The table below shows the Gregorian dates of Hajj of recent years the dates correspond to 9 Dhul-Hijjah of Hijri calendar. Prospective dates are approximate:. Fiqh literature describes in detail the manners of carrying out the rites of Hajj, and pilgrims generally follow handbooks and expert guides to successfully fulfill the requirements of Hajj.
Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state, state of holiness, which marks the start of the ritual of Hajj for each person. When a pilgrims enter into the state of Ihram, they are required to abstain from certain actions. For females this involves wearing ordinary dress that fulfills the Islamic condition of public dress with hands and face uncovered;  [ page needed ]. Other prohibitions include refraining from clipping the nails, shaving any part of the body, having sexual relations; using perfumes , damaging plants, killing animals, covering head for men or the face and hands for women ; getting married; or carrying weapons.
The Ihram is meant to show equality of all pilgrims in front of God, with no difference between the rich and the poor. The garments of Ihram are seen as the antithesis of that individualism. Ihram clothing is also a reminder of shrouds worn after death. The ritual of Tawaf involves walking seven times counterclockwise around the Kaaba. Each circuit starts with the kissing or touching of the Black Stone.
Pilgrims also point to the stone and recite a prayer. Eating is not permitted but the drinking of water is permitted and encouraged, because of the risk of dehydration. Men are encouraged to perform the first three circuits at a hurried pace, known as Ramal , and the following four at a more leisurely pace. The completion of Tawaf is followed by two Rakaat prayers at the Place of Abraham Muqam Ibrahim , a site near the Kaaba inside the mosque. After prayer, pilgrims also drink water from the Zamzam well, which is made available in coolers throughout the Mosque. Although the circuits around the Kaaba are traditionally done on the ground level, Tawaf is now also performed on the first floor and roof of the mosque because of the large crowds.
This rite is said to be the manifestation of Tawhid , the Oneness of God. The heart and soul of the pilgrim should move around Kaaba, the symbol of the House of God, in a way that no worldly attraction distracts him from this path. Only Tawhid should attract him. Tawaf also represents Muslims' unity. During Tawaf, everyone encircles Kaaba collectively. Tawaf is followed by sa'ay , running or walking seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwah, located near the Kaaba.
There is also an internal "express lane" for elderly or disabled people. After sa'ay , male pilgrims shave or trim their hair and women generally clip a portion of their hair, which completes the Umrah. Central section reserved for the elderly and the disabled. It is also divided into two directions of travel. On the 8th Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims are reminded of their duties. They again don the Ihram garments and confirm their intention to make the pilgrimage. The prohibitions of Ihram start now. The name of Tarwiyah refers to a narration of Ja'far al-Sadiq. He described the reason that there was no water at Mount Arafat on the 8th day of Dhu al-Hijjah. If pilgrims wanted to stay at Arafat, he would have prepared water from Mecca and carried it by themselves there.
So they told each other to drink enough. Finally, this day called Tarwiyah  that means to quench thirst in the Arabic language. Also at this day, Husayn ibn Ali began to go to Karbala from Mecca. After the morning prayer on the 8th of Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims proceed to Mina where they spend the whole day and offer noon Note: On Friday, Friday Prayer is Offered, instead of Dhuhr Prayer, at Mina , afternoon , evening , and night prayers. On 9th Dhu al-Hijjah before noon, pilgrims arrive at Arafat , a barren and plain land some 20 kilometres 12 mi east of Mecca,  where they stand in contemplative vigil: they offer supplications, repent on and atone for their past sins, and seek the mercy of God , and listen to the sermon from the Islamic scholars who deliver it from near Jabal al-Rahmah The Mount of Mercy  from where Muhammad is said to have delivered his last sermon.
Lasting from noon through sunset,  this is known as 'standing before God' wuquf , one of the most significant rites of Hajj. Pilgrims must leave Arafat for Muzdalifah after sunset without performing their maghrib sunset prayer at Arafat. Upon reaching there, pilgrims perform Maghrib and Isha prayer jointly, spend the night praying and sleeping on the ground with open sky, and gather pebbles for the next day's ritual of the stoning of the Devil Shaytan.
At Mina, the pilgrims perform symbolic stoning of the devil Ramy al-Jamarat by throwing seven stones from sunrise to sunset at only the largest of the three pillars, known as Jamrat al-Aqabah. Because of safety reasons, in the pillars were replaced by long walls, with catch basins below to collect the pebbles. After the stoning of the Devil, animals are sacrificed to commemorate the story of Ibrahim and Ismael.
Traditionally the pilgrims slaughtered the animal themselves or oversaw the slaughtering. Today many pilgrims buy a sacrifice voucher in Mecca before the greater Hajj begins, which allows an animal to be slaughtered in the name of God Allah on the 10th, without the pilgrim being physically present. Modern abattoirs complete the processing of the meat, which is then sent as a charity to poor people around the world.
After sacrificing an animal, another important rite of Hajj is the shaving or trimming of head hair known as Halak. All male pilgrims shave their head or trim their hair on the day of Eid al Adha and female pilgrims cut the tips of their hair. On the same or the following day, the pilgrims re-visit the Sacred Mosque in Mecca for another tawaf , known as Tawaf al-Ifadah , an essential part of Hajj. The night of the 10th is spent back at Mina.
Starting from noon to sunset on the 11 Dhu al-Hijjah and again the following day , the pilgrims again throw seven pebbles at each of the three pillars in Mina. This is commonly known as the " Stoning of the Devil ". On 12 Dhu al-Hijjah, the same process of the stoning of the pillars as of 11 Dhu al-Hijjah takes place. If unable to leave on the 12th before sunset or opt to stay longer, they must perform the stoning ritual again on the 13th before returning to Mecca.
Finally, before leaving Mecca, pilgrims perform a farewell tawaf called the Tawaf al-Wadaa. The pilgrims circle the Kaaba seven times counter-clockwise, and if they can, attempt to touch or kiss the Kaaba. During their journey for Hajj, pilgrims traditionally also travel to the city of Medina approximately kilometres mi to the northeast , in particular to pray at the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi Mosque of the Prophet ,  which contains the tomb of prophet Muhammad. To Muslims, Hajj is associated with religious as well as social significance. If in a given year, an adult Muslim is in good health and his life and wealth are safe, they must perform the Hajj in the same year. Delaying it is considered sinful unless the delay is caused by reasons beyond their control.
Apart from being an obligatory religious duty, the Hajj is seen to have a spiritual merit that provides the Muslims with an opportunity of self-renewal. A study on the impact of participating in the Islamic pilgrimage found that Muslim communities become more positive and tolerant after Hajj experience. Kennedy School of Government , the study noted that the Hajj "increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects and leads to more favourable attitudes toward women, including greater acceptance of female education and employment" and that "Hajjis show increased belief in peace, equality and harmony among adherents of different religions.
Malcolm X , an American activist during the Civil Rights Movement , describes the sociological atmosphere he experienced at his Hajj in the s as follows:. There were tens of thousands of pilgrims, from all over the world. They were of all colours, from blue-eyed blondes to black-skinned Africans. But we were all participating in the same ritual, displaying a spirit of unity and brotherhood that my experiences in America had led me to believe never could exist between the white and the non-white.
America needs to understand Islam because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. You may be shocked by these words coming from me. But on this pilgrimage, what I have seen, and experienced, has forced me to rearrange much of my thought-patterns previously held. Hajj is one of the most important acts of faith a Muslim can commit. The act is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and is considered mandatory for those who practice Islam.
As presented above, the pilgrimage is entrenched in traditions and codified by a multitude of holy texts. Muslims are bound in a contract with God and Hajj is one of the payments which God requires of his followers. For this reason, those who are unable to undertake Hajj themselves, are permitted to send another in their place under specific circumstances. First, the person who sends someone in their place must be unable to undertake Hajj themselves because of an incurable sickness or old age. If the sickness may be cured, the follower of God must go when they are able. Also, Hajj Badal may be performed on a person's behalf if they are already deceased.
This act is considered a form of vicarious atonement. In this case, one of the Five Pillars of Islam can be completed for a Muslim who was not able to fulfill their duties while living. As the requirements for the person who is having Hajj being completed on their behalf, there are also requirements for those who are carrying out the act. When the person committing the act enters the Ihram—the holy garb worn during Hajj—they must acknowledge the person who they are representing. Also, when the Ihram is donned, the Hajj can only be for the single person who they represent and not for themselves.
Another qualification is that the present person must be Muslim and in good standing with the Islamic community. Because there are multiple distinct types of Hajj, the person performing the ceremony in another's place must attend the type which is desired by the unable. When approached by a woman from Juhayan, this exchange occurred between the two: "My mother vowed to go for Hajj, but she died before she did so.
Can I perform Hajj on her behalf? Do you not think if your mother owed a debt that you would pay it off for her? Fulfil her debt to God; for God is more deserving than what is owed to him should be paid. However, the validity of Hajj Badal has been questioned by other Islamic scholars. The Ulama, a large body of Islamic scholars, oppose Hajj Badal because of its imitation of Christian beliefs. Another reason why Hajj Badal is criticized stems from lack of consistency. Out of the Five Pillars of Islam, none are subject to vicarious atonement. If prayer, Kalima, fasting, or Zakat are not able to be atoned for vicariously, then why can Hajj? Most of the Hajj related issues are handled by Ministry of Hajj and Umrah.
The Saudi government employs technology to protect the safety, and enhance the experience, of the pilgrim's journey. Recently, the Ministry of Hajj and Umrah has introduced the Hajj pilgrims' e-bracelet program that stores pilgrims essential data which helps to provide them with the necessary support. The event aims at exploring the use of technology to provide solutions for Hajj pilgrims. The services, which are available in nine languages, help pilgrims in finding emergency service centres, holy sites, currency exchanges, restaurants, and accommodation.
To enter Saudi Arabia to participate in the Hajj as a Muslim, visa requirements have to be satisfied. People from Gulf Cooperation Council countries do not need a visa to enter Saudi Arabia and vice versa. People with Saudi visas are not allowed to enter the site unless they are Muslim. Makkah Route Initiative is an initiative made by the Saudi government to facilitate the pilgrims entries to Saudi Arabia by completing it in the airports of their countries. In , Saudi Arabia launched an environment-friendly hajj initiative. The project is implemented in 30 camps in Mina where pilgrims are encouraged to sort out their wastes.
Moreover, the proceeds are used for charitable purposes. Traditionally, the pilgrimage to Mecca was mainly an overland journey using camels as a means of transport. During the second half of the nineteenth century after the s , steamships began to be used in the pilgrimage journey to Mecca, and the number of pilgrims traveling on sea routes increased. During official Hajj days, pilgrims travel between the different locations by metro, bus or on foot. The Saudi government strictly controls vehicles access into these heavily congested areas. However, the journey can take many hours due to heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. In , the Saudi government started operating the Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro line as an exclusive shuttle train for pilgrims between Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina.
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